AUTONOMOUS & CONNECTED MOBILITY
Stages of Autonomy
Calstart’s Michael Ippoliti, director Clean Transportation Solutions
Group, said during a Calstart webinar on autonomous minishuttles,
“To borrow from ZF, there are three elements involved of
autonomous: see, think, act.” To do that, requires the following:
1. Sensors: Cameras, radar, lidar and sonar provide ultraprecise mapping.
2. Sensor Fusion: Powerful processors come in to play,
which were specifically built for the purpose.
3. Control Decisions: The software that makes decisions.
4. Actuation: Physically performing actions, such as
changing gears, applying brakes and steering.
Levels of Driving Automation as Defined
by SAE International Standards J3016
HUMAN DRIVER MONITORS THE DRIVING ENVIRONMENT
22 | Mass Transit | MassTransitmag.com | JULY/AUGUST 2018
Autonomy In Action
THE LIVING LAB: INTELLIGENT MOBILITY
Living Labs at the University of
Nevada in Reno, Nevada, was
created to allow the testing of
synchronized mobility technologies
in complex urban environments.
The Regional Transportation Commission
(RTC) of Washoe County has partnered
UNL and others on an Intelligent Mobility
project. The Proterra buses are equipped
with cameras and sensors, which are used
to gather data to be used for improving
safety and efficiencies. Kostas Alexis,
assistant professor at UNR, explained
the driver will still be in control, but he
or she is augmented with additional
information. The data will be used to
investigate the possibility of automating
such a large vehicle in a city setting.
The Future of Livable Cities: Shared,
Coordinated Multi-Modal Services
Instead of increaed congestion, ridesharing
and autonomous technology could
help solve first-last mile challenges.
You Can’t Have a Smart City with Dumb Roads
As planners lay the groundwork for
making cities smarter, it is important
that they not forget their roadways.
Autonomy in Motion
Achieving true autonomy and
automation requires a mobile wireless
network and real-time data.
No Automation: Full-time performance by the human
driver by all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even
when enhanced by warning or intervention systems.
Driver Assistance: The driving mode-specific execution by
a driver assistance system of either steering or acceleration/
deceleration using information about the driving environment
and with the expectation that the human driver perform
all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task.
Partial Automation: The driving mode-specific execution by
one or more driver assistance systems of both steering and
acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving
environment and with the expectation that the human driver
perform all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task.
AUTOMATED DRIVING SYSTEM MONITORS THE DRIVING ENVIRONMENT
Conditional Automation: The driving mode-specific
performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of
the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human
driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene.
High Automation: The driving mode-specific performance
by automated driving systems of all aspects of the
dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not
respond appropriately to a request to intervene.
Full Automation: The full-time performance by an
automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic
driving task under all roadway and environmental
conditions that can be managed by a human driver.
THE PROJECT will study positioning and
orientation of vehicles, pedestrian and
cyclist behavior, and coordination of
vehicles and traffic control systems.
Human driver monitors
Automated driving system
monitors driving environment